Iptables

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iptables is the standard firewall software. The syntax is a little bit difficult, but luckily, lots of it can be reproduced very easily since the firewall behavior is very similar for each port. iptables is installed by default with the following rules, but you must use these steps to manually add any other different ports (at least the add and save functions).

Checking iptables rules

# iptables --list
Chain INPUT (policy DROP)
target     prot opt source               destination
ACCEPT     tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere            tcp dpt:ssh
ACCEPT     tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere            tcp dpt:http

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination


Adding iptables-rules

By default, the policy is to ACCEPT all input, output, and forward packets. This is the fully unsecured state.

The proper way to secure a server is to lock out ALL inbound contact, and add only that which you need.

Note: if you are completing this step via PuTTY, it is essential you 'ACCEPT' ssh before you change the default policy to 'DROP'. The order these are listed in is significant.

command inbound outbound port action behavior
iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT matched unaffected * ACCEPT All unmatched packets are ACCEPTED (policy change)
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT matched unaffected 22 (SSH) ACCEPT Allow SSH inbound
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT matched unaffected 80 (HTTP) ACCEPT Allow HTTP inbound
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT matched unaffected 443 (HTTPS) ACCEPT Allow HTTPS inbound
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 25565 -j ACCEPT matched unaffected 25565 ACCEPT Allow MC clients inbound
iptables -A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT matched unaffected * ACCEPT Permit packets in to firewall itself that are part of existing and related connections.
iptables -P INPUT DROP matched unaffected * DROP All unmatched packets are dropped (policy change)

Saving iptables-rules

Once you have a working set of rules you are happy with, you will want to save them, to ensure they persist through reboots.

iptables-save > /etc/iptables-rules

Applying saved rules

To apply the set of rules saved from the above step, execute the following line:

iptables-restore < /etc/iptables-rules

Applying rules on startup

/etc/rc.local is the boot-up script. Any user-specified commands may be entered here, such as iptables. iptables is already autostarted by default.

  1. vi /etc/rc.local
  2. Add iptables-restore < /etc/iptables-rules
  3. Save and quit; reboot